Birder's Guide to Bahia, Brazil: 6 - 26 Oct 1994
Section 1 - General information





This Birder's Guide is divided into five sections:

Section 1 - Introduction, logistics, itinerary and general information.
Section 2 - Birding sites (part 1).
Section 3 - Birding sites (part 2).
Section 4 - Birding sites (part 3).
Section 5 - Annotated checklist.


Brazil has recently become more visited by world birders. In the past, lack of information and identification difficulties had meant that birders concentrated their Neotropical endeavours elsewhere. However, with the publication of Birds of South America and more bird finding information, Brazil is becoming a major destination.

In the New World, Brazil ranks top in number of both endemic, and endangered birds. Unfortunately, due to its size, and impressive list of 1700+ species, anything but the most extended trip cannot hope but to brush the surface of this ornithologically rich area. This comprehensive report pulls together information, old and new, critical for a successful birding trip to the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil. This area includes the last remnants of the highly fragmented Atlantic coastal forests, home to numerous endangered endemics and which arguably rank as the most critically endangered area of biodiversity in South America.

The aim of our trip, over three weeks in October 1994, was not to compile an extensive list, but rather to concentrate on key, and difficult, endemic species, particularly two critically endangered parrot species; Spix's Macaw and Lear's Macaw. In this respect the trip was spectacularly successful. A total of 370 species was seen, including 58 of the 180+ Brazilian endemics. This trip report and Birder's Guide was originally written in collaboration with John Wall - Worldtwitch

Flights and Getting There

Few flights are available directly to Salvador, the state capital of Bahia. Most flights from the USA or Europe connect via Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo. The airport departure tax is $10 per person.


At the time of our visit the New Real had just been introduced, and inflation was seemingly under control. Government money-market constraints, forcing down inflation to near zero at that time, made Brazil expensive. Periods of relative expense followed by a gradual increase in inflation has long been a feature of Brazil's economy. Beware that changing money can be a major issue. During our visit, it appeared possible only to change money in Salvador, which cost us a lengthy detour having relied on changing money as we went. We were equally amazed that we could not find (at least in the more remote parts of Bahia we visited) anyone willing to change US$ on the black market. The easiest place to change currency is the International Airport, which is open during the day and early evening only - not 24 hours. At the time of our visit 1 New Real was equivalent to about 1.1 US$. Prices quoted throughout this report are in US$.


Holders of British and most European passports do not require a visa; a 90 day permit being issued on entry. American passport holders on the other hand must obtain a visa in advance.


Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, and a wide variety of accents can be heard in Bahia. Very little English is spoken. If you speak Spanish or a garbled mixture of Portuguese/Spanish, you will probably be understood, but may have difficulty understanding any responses.

Travel and Getting Around

Car Rental. Car rental in Brazil is generally expensive. Smaller cars such as VW Beetles generally run on alcohol, which can be difficult to start when cold (mornings at higher elevations) or damp - a petrol engined vehicle will be more reliable. As we were three people we rented a VW Jetta. Even though we shopped around, the best deal we could find, through Avis in the USA, was still $2,200 for three weeks (all inclusive). Comparing prices a few months later, we were shocked to see a further increase; Avis then quoting $2,550 for the same car for three weeks. However, a contemporary trip in early 1995 rented a VW Golf out of Rio de Janeiro at a price of only $1,300 for 30 days. The Avis office in Salvador is right next to the Hotel Ondina Plaza in Ondina, at Av. Presidente Vargas 3097, Ondina. Tel: (071) 245-2073.

Fuel. We experienced no problem purchasing petrol. As on any trip in more remote areas it is advisable to keep the tank full whenever possible.

Maps and Roads. The best general map is the Guia Rodoviário, published annually, and available in larger cities. Road conditions vary greatly - principal highways included. Many of these are single carriage-way, and some greatly pot-holed - a combination which reduces average driving speed over long distances to only 60-80 km/hour. Secondary roads are often dirt, some only passable to 4x4 after heavy rain. Particularly bad sections we encountered are mentioned in the main text below. Beware of lombada or speed bumps (marked or otherwise) which are common in towns and villages. These can be fatal to the health of your car if hit at speed.


Brazil has no shortage of accommodation. Places we stayed at (recommended or otherwise) are dealt with in the relevant birding sites below. In Salvador we stayed at the Hotel Ondina Plaza in the beach resort of Ondina just south of the city. Address: Hotel Ondina Plaza, Av. Presidente Vargas 3033, Ondina. Tel: (071) 245-8188, Fax: (071) 235-5376.

Useful Contacts

The IBAMA office in Salvador: IBAMA, Av. Juracy Magalhães Jr. 608, Rio Vermelho, CEP 40295-140 Salvador. Tel: (071) 240-7509/7322. Fax: (071) 240-7913.

Una reserve: Dr. Saturnino Neto F. de Sousa (Reserve Director), IBAMA Reserva de Una, Rebio de Una, U5690, 45690 Una, Bahia. Tel: (073) 236-2166. Fax: (073) 236-2007.

Climate and When To Go

The north-east of Brazil generally has a hot tropical climate. Coastal areas of Bahia receive plenty of rain, chiefly between April and August. Inland however, is much drier, the majority of the habitat typified by dry scrub. The main holiday season in Brazil is December to February, when prices will be higher in tourist areas although remote parts of Bahia hardly qualify as regular tourist destinations. From a general lack of bird song, it appeared that our trip, in October, was after the main breeding season of many species. In retrospect an earlier trip, possibly at the beginning of the rains, might have produced more breeding activity.


Due to the complexity of the avifauna and lack of a single field guide, birders are faced with having to use several references for field identification. We used a combination of Ridgely and Tudor's Birds of South America vols. I & II (which adequately cover the passerines), together with Hilty's Birds of Colombia, Dunning's South American Birds and Sick's Birds in Brazil.

Primary Sources:

Beadle, D., Bostock, N., Hornbuckle, J. and Kirwin, J. (1995). Birding in Eastern Brazil. Unpublished
trip report (17th Jan - 5th Mar 1995).

Clements, J. (1988). Brazil, 1988. Unpublished trip report.

Collar, N.J., Crosby, M.J. and Stattersfield, A.J. (1994) Birds to Watch 2, The World List of Threatened Birds. BirdLife International Series No. 4. (Cited herein as “BW2”).

Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P., Krabbe, N., Madroño Nieto, A., Naranjo, L.G., Parker, T.A., III, and Wege, D.C. (1992) Threatened Birds of the Americas: The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book (3rd ed., part 2). (Cited herein as “RDB”)

Draffen, A., Strauss, R., Swaney, D. (1992). Brazil. Lonely Planet travel survival kit.

Dunning, J.S. (1987). South American Birds. A photographic Aid to Identification. Harrowood.
Contains useful photographs (principally non-passerines) of species not illustrated elsewhere.

Fitzpatrick, J.W. and O’Neill, J.P. (1979). A new tody-tyrant from Peru. Auk 96:443-447. (Contains plate - line drawings - of Hemitriccus mirandae and H. kaempferi.)

Forrester, B.C. (1987). Brazil, July/August 1987. Unpublished trip report.

Forrester, B.C. (1993). Birding Brazil. (Cited herein as “Forrester”.)

Forrester, B.C. (1994). Brazil VII (Provisional Version) July/August 1994. Unpublished trip report.
(Cited as “Forrester ‘94”).

Gardner, N.J. and Gardner, D.S. (1990). Birding Trip to Brazil, 1 May 1990 - 21 July 1990. Unpublished trip report.

Gonzaga, L.P. and Pacheco, J.F. (1995) A new species of Phylloscartes (Tyrannidae) from the mountains of southern Bahia, Brazil. Bull. B.O.C. 115:88-97.

Gonzaga, L.P., Pacheco, J.F., Bauer, C. and Castiglioni, G.D.A. (1995). An avifaunal survey of the vanishing montane Atlantic forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. Bird Conservation International. 5:279-290.

Gonzaga, L.A.P., Scott, D.A. and Collar, N.J. (1986). The status and birds of some forest fragments in eastern Brazil. Unpublished report. Includes lists for Una, Monte Pascoal, Porto Seguro, Córrego de Veado, Fazenda Klabin, Nova Lombardia and Fazenda Montes Claros.

Gullick, T. (1996). Notes from a Birding trip to northeastern Brazil, February 1996.

Hilty, S.L., and Brown, W.L. (1986). A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princetown.

Juniper, T. and Yamashita, C. (1990) The conservation of Spix’s Macaw. Bird Conservation
International 24:224-228.

Luigi da S., G. and Nacinovic, J.B. (1991). Birds as indicator for the conservation of Atlantic forests in Bahia, Brazil. Unpublished report.

Oliver, W.L.R. and Santos, I.B. (1991) Threatened endemic mammals of the Atlantic Forest region of south-east Brazil. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (Special Scientific Report 4).

Olmos, F. (1993) Birds of Serra da Capivara National Park, in the “caatinga” of north-eastern Brazil. Bird Conservation International 3:21-36.

Pacheco, J.F., and Whitney, B.M. (1995). Range extensions for some birds in northeastern Brazil.
Bull. B.O.C. 1995:115(3).

Pearman, M. Maps of Porto Seguro and Monte Pascoal. Unpublished.

Pinto, O.M.O. (1935) As Aves da Bahia. Rev. Mus. Paul., São Paulo (9):1-326.

Pinto, O.M.O. (1943) Nova contribuição à ornitologia do recôncavo (Bahia). Papéis Avulsos Zoologia, São Paulo, 3:562-581.

Ridgely, R.S. and Tudor, G. (1989, 1994) The Birds of South America, Volumes 1 and 2. University of Texas Press.

Rodrigues, Alvares & Macado. Ornitolgia Neotropical 5:65-67.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L., Jr. (1990) Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L., Jr. (1993) A Supplement to Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press.

Snow, D. (1982). The Cotingas. British Museum of Natural History/Comstock Cornell University Press.

Sick, H. (1993) Birds in Brazil. Princeton University Press. Although not principally intended as a field
guide, this reference does contain some useful plates and text (especially for the non-passerines, not covered in Birds of South America). Due to it's size and weight, taking it to the field is not recommended. Better to make some photocopies of plates and take notes.

Souza, D.G.S. (1990) Lista das aves do Estado da Bahia. Feira de Santana, Bahia: edição em xerox.
Studer, A. and Teixeira, D.M. (1994) Notes on the Buff-fronted Owl Aegolius harrisii in Brazil. Bull. B.O.C. 114:62-63.

Teixeira, D.M. (1987) Notas sobre o “Gravatazeiro” Rhopornis ardesiaca (Wied, 1831). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 47:409-414.

Teixeira, D.M. and Carnevalli, N. (1989) Nova espécie de Scytalopus Gould, 1837, do nordeste do Brasil. Bol. Mus. Nac., Nov. Sér., Zool. (331):1-11.

Tobias, J.A., Catsis, M.C. and Williams, R.S.R. (1993) Notes on scarce birds observed in southern and eastern Brazil: 24 July to 7 September 1993. Unpublished expedition report.

Tobias, J.A. Maps of Porto Seguro and Monte Pascoal (1994). Unpublished.

Whitney, B.M. and Pacheco, J.F. (1993) Birds recorded on the northeastern Brazil tour, 18 November - 5 December 1993. Unpublished.

Whitney, B.M. and Pacheco, J.F. (1994) Behaviour and vocalizations of Gyalophylax and Megaxenops (Furnariidae), two little-known genera endemic to northeastern Brazil. Condor 96:559-565.

Whitney, B.M. and Pacheco, J.F. (In press) Distribution and conservation status of four Myrmotherula antwrens Formicariidae in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Bird Conservation International.

Willis, E.O. and Oniki, Y. (1981) Notes on the Slender Antbird. Wilson Bull. 93:103-107.

Willis, E.O. and Oniki, Y. (1982) Behaviour of the Fringe-backed Fire-eye (Pyriglema atra): a test case for taxonomy versus conservation. Rev. Brasil. Biol. 42:213-223.

Yamashita, C. (1987) Field observations and comments on the Indigo Macaw. Wilson Bull. 99:280-282.

Tape Recordings:

Barlow, Jon C. (1990). Songs of the Vireos and Their Allies. ARA Records.

Barlow, J.C. (1995) Voices of the New World Vireos and Their Allies (2d ed.) ARA Records.

Gardner, N.J. (1990) Tape recordings made on 1990 South America trip. (Unpublished).

Hardy, J.W. (1990) Voices of the New World Crows and Their Allies. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W. and Parker, T.A., III. (1985) Voices of the New World Thrushes. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W. and Coffey, B.B., Jr. (1991) Voices of the Wrens. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W., Coffey, B.B., Jr., and Reynard, G.B. (1990) Voices of the New World Owls. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W., Coffey, B.B., Jr., and Reynard, G.B. (1989) Voices of the New World Nightjars and Their Allies. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W., Parker, T.A., III, and Coffey, B.B., Jr. (1995) Voices of the Woodcreepers, Neotropical Family Dendrocolaptidae. Second Edition, Revised. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W., Reynard, G.B. and Coffey, B.B., Jr. (1990) Voices of the New World Pigeons and Doves. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W., Reynard G.B., and Coffey, B.B., Jr. (1990) Voices of the New World Cuckoos and Trogons. ARA Records.

Hardy, J.W., Viellard, J. and Straneck, R. (1993) Voices of the Tinamous. ARA Records.

Stranek, R. Canto de las aves de Argentina (8 pamphlets and 4 cassette tapes).


We are indebted to, and would like to thank the many local people who helped us during our time in Brazil, particularly Marco Aurecio Do-Ré (Spix's Macaw), Dr. Saturnino Neto F. de Sousa (Una), Ilmar Santos (Canudos), and Dra. Teresa and Simone de Souza Campos (IBAMA-Salvador). Our special thanks go to all those who supplied notes and information, especially Bruce Forrester whose notes from a trip in August, just prior to ours, were invaluable.


06 Oct 94 - Arrival in Salvador.
07 Oct 94 - São Francisco de Conde, Santa Amaro.
08 Oct 94 - Santa Amaro. Drive to Morro de Chapéu. Birding Morro de Chapéu.
09 Oct 94 - Morro de Chapéu. Drive to Senor de Bonfim.
10 Oct 94 - area north of Senor de Bonfim. Drive to Curaçá. Birding Curaçá.
11 Oct 94 - Curaçá area looking for Spix's Macaw.
12 Oct 94 - Curaçá area looking for Spix's Macaw.
13 Oct 94 - Curaçá - Canudos road. Expedition to Lear's Macaw roost.
14 Oct 94 - Lear's Macaw. Birding Canudos area.
15 Oct 94 - Canudos area. Long drive to São Francisco de Conde.
16 Oct 94 - Santa Amaro for Fringe-backed Fire-eye. Drive to Salvador (change money) and Boa Nova.
17 Oct 94 - Boa Nova.
18 Oct 94 - Boa Nova.
19 Oct 94 - Boa Nova.
20 Oct 94 - Boa Nova.
21 Oct 94 - Boa Nova. Drive to Una.
22 Oct 94 - Una.
23 Oct 94 - Una. Drive to Porto Seguro.
24 Oct 94 - Porto Seguro. Drive to Monte Pascoal.
25 Oct 94 - Monte Pascoal. Drive to Valença.
26 Oct 94 - Valença area. Drive to Salvador. Flight to Europe.

Personal Experiences

6 Oct. With John Wall and Rod McCann. John took Trans-Brasil Airlines from New York via Brasilia arriving 01h10. Rod and I took the weekly direct Varig flight from Amsterdam, leaving 21h00, arriving 04h15 next day.

7 Oct. Took taxi ($30) to Ondina where we met at the Hotel Ondina, just south of Salvador. Picked up the rental car from Avis, which is conveniently located next door to the hotel. Although Avis (USA) had furnished us with a letter confirming the pick-up time to be 08h00, in multiple telexes to the branch in Salvador, they had indicated the pick-up time to be 10h00. Result; car not ready when Avis opened at 08h00. Accordingly, to save time, we took a taxi to the IBAMA office. At IBAMA, we had pleasant conversations with Dra. Teresa and Simone de Souza Campos, who issued us a permit to look for Lear's Macaw in the Rasa da Catarina. A heavy rain shower managed to stall our taxi's engine, which took many minutes to start again, providing an excellent demonstration of why not to rent alcohol-fueled cars.

By the time of our return from IBAMA, Avis had our car prepared. We looked for a supermarket on the way north, and soon found a Hiper Peti on the coastal road southbound in Pituba. In Brazil, supermarkets are referred to as hipermercados, whereas ordinary lojas frequently call themselves supermercados. The Hiper Peti had a good selection of biscuits, and boxed fruit juices, which generally were unavailable outside of Salvador. Another good shopping location was a large supermarket 3.2 km north of the airport roundabout. Drove to the mangroves near São Francisco do Conde only to find high water conditions unsuitable for finding Little Wood-Rail. Therefore we continued on through Santo Amaro to the Fringe-backed Fire-eye stakeout just outside town. A couple of unfruitful hours here made for an less than satisfactory start to the trip. Overnight at the pleasant Pousada Recanto do Parque in São Francisco do Conde.

8 Oct. Early morning at the Fringe-backed Fire-eye stakeout, where we again failed to find the bird. Returned to the mangroves, but went to the wrong spot (as we later realised) at the end of road that forks to the right. However, we heard Little Wood-Rail, but failed to see them. Drove to Morro do Chapéu, stopping at the waterfall 20 kilometres east of town. Then drove to summit of the hill just south of town. Overnight at Diamantina Palace Hotel in Morro do Chapéu. Dinner at the small restaurant across the street from the hotel, serving good local fare.

9 Oct. An 04h30 start to drive to the summit of Morro do Chapéu, where the weather was poor; cold, windy and foggy. In three hours around the top we found two Hooded Visorbearer and a pair of White-naped Jay. Later, from 09h00-11h00, we birded in dense caatinga, farther down, where we had Great Xenops accompanying a mixed flock of antbirds and furnariids. We also managed to get lost within this dense scrub and had to climb one of the larger trees to look for the direction out. Returned to the waterfall area, and then drove to Senhor do Bonfim, birding en route. Stopped at a marsh near Jacobina, and at dirt road to the left (railway crossing) just before Senhor do Bonfim. Overnight at Hotel Planalto, about a kilometre northeast of Senhor do Bonfim. Dinner in Senhor do Bonfim at the Restaurante Frutos do Mar, which is across the street from the Hotel Vitória.

10 Oct. Birded in scrub at an antenna tower 13 kilometres north of Senhor do Bonfim, then at better caatinga farther north. At midday continued to Juazeiro, where we went shopping at the supermarket on the left side of the road to Petrolina just before the bridge over the Rio São Francisco. Telephoned Marco Aurecio Do-Ré, the Spix's Macaw warden and researcher, from a service station on the outskirts of Juazeiro and arranged to meet him at the Hotel Casa Grande that evening. Continued to Curaçá, birding en route at a roadside marsh and, in the late afternoon, gallery forest along a dried-up tributary of the Rio São Francisco, 13 kilometres from Curaçá. Checked into Hotel Casa Grande, which is on the block north of the praça, across the street from the teatro. Met Marco Do-Ré at dinner.

11 Oct. Up at 04h30, and collected by Marco, who took us to what had been a reliable morning stakeout for Spix's Macaw; a farmhouse overlooking gallery forest. The bird failed to appear. At mid-day, Marco took us to see the captive female Spix's Macaw in the recently constructed flight cage. Went to town for lunch at the Restaurante Gato que Ri; the best restaurant in town according to Marco. Afternoon back at the farmhouse. In the mid-afternoon we heard the Spix's Macaw at some distance, but it failed to pass by. We stayed in the area till 18h00, and driving back in the dark saw Scissor-tailed Nightjar and Pygmy Nightjar. Dinner at the Gato que Ri, and overnight at the Hotel Casa Grande.

12 Oct. Early morning at the farmhouse. Again, the Spix's Macaw failed to appear. After another lunch at the Gato que Ri ($25 for four persons), Marco drove us cross-country to the approximate spot where the bird had called on previous day. He planned to leave us there while he participated in an educational program in town. Just as he was about to depart, we heard the Spix's Macaw call, and saw it fly from a nearby tree to perch in the canopy nearby. After a brief stop, the bird moved on. As one might imagine this was the highlight of the trip; seeing what was the sole surviving wild bird. We birded in the area for the rest of the afternoon, and Marco picked us up after dark. Our celebratory dinner with Marco, was pizza and beer in the town square. Overnight at the Hotel Casa Grande.

13 Oct. Early morning birding along the road from Curaçá to Canudos. Stopped at gallery forest southeast of Curaçá and in caatinga en route to Canudos. On arrival in Canudos, we checked into the Hotel Brasil. Went to the home of Antônio Florêncio da Costa, the SEMA representative in Canudos, and discussed logistics for seeing Lear's Macaw. We gave him the permit from IBAMA-Salvador, and he advised that we would also need permission from Ilmar Santos, Director of Fundação Biodiversitas, because the birds were roosting on private property, and it was necessary for Ilmar to fax the owner before visitors could come onto the property. Called Ilmar Santos and discussed our trip, Lear's Macaw, and other conservation matters. Learned from him that bird trappers have taken seven Lear's Macaws in the past year. He also authorized us to use the Fundação Biodiversita's jeep to make the trip up to the Lear's Macaw roost site. Set out late in the afternoon in the jeep with Antônio Florêncio and a truly appalling and dangerous jeep driver who worked for Fundação Biodiversitas. Camped at the roost.

14 Oct. Heard a Grey Potoo and saw 40+ Lear's Macaw at dawn. Then drove downhill to the farmhouse, where we saw a single Lear's Macaw flying over the cornfields. Birded the vicinity of the farmhouse then drove back to Canudos, twice almost skidding off the road en route. Also we experienced at least two hours delay by blowing two tyres and having to bus to a local farm for repairs. Afternoon birding in caatinga just south of Canudos. Overnight at Hotel Brasil in Canudos.

15 Oct. Early morning birding along a track through the caatinga just south of Canudos. Drove west toward Jeremoabo, stopping at the Pectoral Antwren stakeout about 21 kilometres west of town. Proceeded on a long tough drive to São Francisco do Conde, where we had three Little Wood-Rail across the river from the drilling platform. Overnight at Pousada Recanto do Parque, São Francisco do Conde.

16 Oct. Clocks put forward an hour overnight. Returned to the Fringe-backed Fire-eye stakeout near Santo Amaro, and at last had a male responding in dense second growth. Drove to the airport to change money. Found that Hiper Peti supermarket closed, but went shopping at a mini-market in a Shell station in Pituba and the supermarket 3.2 km north of the airport. Drove to Boa Nova. At a service station in Jequié some locals spotted a missing rear exhaust bracket and replaced it. They also washed the car. However they tried to rip us off completely, and we had to make a hasty departure, paying them $20 and driving out of town quickly. Noting that our power-assisted steering was leaking slowly we bought some fluid at the Boa Nova service station. Late afternoon birding in dry scrub two kilometres east of Boa Nova. Overnight at Pousada Solar in Boa Nova.

17 Oct. After an excellent early breakfast, prepared by the owner the previous night, we drove to the dry forest two kilometres east of Boa Nova, which we birded the whole morning. Afternoon spent along the middle trail into the wet forest. We were able to drive all the way to the trail head, because it had not rained recently, and the road was hard. Overnight at Pousada Solar.

18 Oct. Rained all night. Initially we drove to the wet forest, but as we found the road impassable, we returned to the dry forest, where we birded the morning; mostly in light rain. Around lunch time we visited the local tyre repair shop ($4). Afternoon in wet forest, only to be soaked by heavy rain. In the final hour before dark walked up the paved road to the pig farm, where we had a Mantled Hawk flying over. Scissor-tailed Nightjar appear to be fairly common along the main track. Overnight at Pousada Solar.

19 Oct. First task of the day was changing a flat tyre, us having evidently collected a puncture yesterday. John birded the same, main trail into wet forest as yesterday, while we tried the old logging track seen on the way in. Good birding found along both trails. Overnight at Pousada Solar.

20 Oct. Birded along the logging track. Overnight at Pousada Solar. Called Dr. de Sousa, director of the IBAMA Reserva de Una, in order to make arrangements for visiting.

21 Oct. Early morning along a different track into the wet forest. Incredibly we whistled in a Buff-fronted Owl, which although calling close-by refused to move and required at least an hour to locate in the lower canopy. Thereafter we drove to Una. Missed the turnoff, and took a southerly route through Santa Luzia. This is definitely not recommended - the road is bad and would have been impassable if wet. Good cacao plantation forest along the road however, and we managed to get quite a reaction from small passerines when imitating Buff-fronted Owl. Evidently this enigmatic species is not as rare in Bahia as it seems from the paucity of records. Although there is a basic hotel in Una it looked rather unsavoury, so we stayed about 13 kilometres to the south at the comfortable Pousada Vila do Mar ($20/triple) in the Comandatuba beach resort. A power-cut over the whole town meant we were unable to obtain an evening meal.

22 Oct. From 06h00 to 07h00 we birded at the end of a short track to the east of the road 7.8 km south of Una, where we found the first Buff-breasted Tody-tyrant for Bahia. Met José Renato at 07h00 across the street from the Banco do Brasil in Una. Stopped at Dr. Saturnino's house to meet him, then on to Una Biological Reserve. Spent the morning in second growth swamp forest (which was very quiet), and then walked the road through the reserve during the afternoon. Overnight at the Pousada Vila del Mar.

23 Oct. Birded along the approach road to the Una Biological Reserve as far as the entrance gate. Drove to Porto Seguro via Canavieiras. The road from Canavieiras across to BR-101 was mostly in poor condition and would not have been passable if wet. It branches off from the coastal road to Canavieiras about one kilometre before the BR station north of town. Stopped at the forest reserve near Porto Seguro and walked along the track running perpendicular to the warden's house. Overnight at the Pousada Jandaias, in Porto Seguro. Dinner at the Colher de Pau seafood restaurant in town (recommended).

24 Oct. Started the day at the Porto Seguro reserve. We saw about ten White-winged Cotinga along the main track through the reserve. In the late morning we drove to Monte Pascoal. Made the hour's hard trek to the top of the mount, but saw little of note. A couple of hours around the visitor centre failed to locate Black-headed Berryeater, which was a major disappointment. However, a single male Banded Cotinga was seen at great distance through the scope in late afternoon from the visitors' centre. Drove to Itamaraju, where we stayed at the Hotel Monte Pascoal.

25 Oct. Morning at Monte Pascoal, where I tried the track to the old ranger station and the others scanned from the visitor centre seeing Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle. Still no berryeater could be found, so drove to Valença. Stopped for lunch at a well sign posted churrascaria, the Estância do Sul, BR 101 northbound, Km 714, 4.5 kilomtres north of Eunápolis. Stayed at the deluxe Hotel Rio Una ($90/triple).

26 Oct. Morning birding along a side road 31 kilometres south of Valença, just after kilometre post 66. Returned to hotel, showered and packed. Drove to Salvador and turned in the car. Avis drove us to the airport. Late evening flights back to USA and Europe.

Section 2 - Birding sites (part 1).
Section 3 - Birding sites (part 2).
Section 4 - Birding sites (part 3).
Section 5 - Annotated checklist.